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Material Science

Unlocking the Potential of New Materials 

Today’s consumers are demanding smaller, lighter, cheaper, and more capable electronics than ever before with ever-longer operating times. To address these conflicting demands, researchers need to develop new materials, miniaturize existing devices, and enhance device efficiencies. The effort to boost device density and performance while reducing power consumption has led to research into graphene and other two-dimensional (2-D) solids with high carrier mobility, as well as organic semiconductors and nano-scale devices.

High efficiency batteries based on new electrolyte and electrode materials will be critical to extending operating times. Advanced fuel cell technologies designed to make the next generation of electric vehicles more efficient and affordable are also under investigation. The desire for greener power generation solutions is spurring investigation into higher temperature superconductors and the power semiconductors essential to power conversion. Materials like gallium arsenide (GaAs) and silicon carbide (SiC) will be crucial to future power transmission technologies. Materials research is also central to boosting the conversion efficiency and power output of solar cells. Boosting the efficiency of laser diodes to increase data transmission capacity requires studying new materials and structures.

Ultra-sensitive measurements are central to materials characterization, from measuring femtoamp-level leakage currents to micro-ohm-level resistance measurements for assessing the resistivity of high carrier mobility materials. On the other end of the scale, characterizing the latest insulators often entails teraohm measurements. Superconductor or nanomaterials research performed at near 0⁰K requires reducing the level of power applied to prevent self-heating, which can affect the device’s or material’s response or damage it. That calls for sourcing very low DC currents or current pulses.

Library

Title
Characterizing Nanoscale Devices with Differential Conductive Measurements
As modern electronics continue to shrink, researchers increasingly look to nanotechnology for breakthroughs in device size and power consumption. In these nanoscale devices, electrical …
Hall Effect Measurements Essential for Characterizing High Carrier Mobility
The Hall effect can be observed when the combination of a magnetic field through a sample and a current along the length of the sample create an electrical current perpendicular to both …
Electrical Characterization of Carbon Nanotube Transistors (CNT FETs) with the Model 4200-SCS Semiconductor Characterization System
Introduction Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been the subject of a lot of scientific research in recent years, due not only to their small size but to their remarkable electronic and …
Leakage Current and Insulation Resistance Measurements
Introduction To measure the leakage current or insulation resistance of a device, you need to apply a fixed voltage to the device and measure the resulting current. Depending on the …
How to Perform Cyclic Voltammetry Measurements Using Electrochemistry Systems
Chemical engineers, chemists, and other scientists use electrical measurement techniques to study chemical reactions and dynamics. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), a type of …
Making High Resistance Measurements on Small Crystals in Inert Gas or High Vacuum w/ the Model 6517A
Introduction Crystalline materials are fundamental to modern electronics and optoelectronics. Therefore, the electrical properties of these materials, such as their (anisotropic) …
Resistivity Measurements Using the Model 2450 SourceMeter SMU Instrument and a Four-Point Collinear Probe
Introduction Electrical resistivity is a basic material property that quantifies a material's opposition to current flow; it is the reciprocal of conductivity. The resistivity of a …
Four-Probe Resistivity and Hall Voltage Measurements with the Model 4200-SCS
Introduction Semiconductor material research and device testing often involve determining the resistivity and Hall mobility of a sample. The resistivity of semiconductor material is …
Title
Sensors and Semiconductors Testing Materials for Tomorrows Smart Devices
Listen to our panel discuss three measurement applications where the properties of new materials have influenced how measurements are made. 
Tips and Techniques to Simplify MOSFET-MOSCAP Device Characterization
This webinar presents a new process that makes characterization and parameter extraction easier and quicker. We'll be discussing the extraction of common parameters as well as which tests to run to …
Use Hall Effect Measurements for the Characterization of New and Existing Materials
The webinar covers semiconductor and other material characterization using Hall Effect and van der Pauw measurements for calculating sample resistivity and mobility among other parameters as well as …